Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health challenge, affecting as much as 8 to 18% of the world population. Identifying childhood risk factors for future CKD may help clinicians make early diagnoses and initiation of preventive interventions for CKD and its attendant comorbidities as well as monitoring for complications. The purpose of this review is to describe childhood risk factors that may predict development of overt kidney disease later in life. Currently, there are multiple childhood risk factors associated with future onset and progression of CKD. These risk factors can be grouped into five categories: genetic factors (e.g., monogenic or risk alleles), perinatal factors (e.g., low birth weight and prematurity), childhood kidney diseases (e.g., congenital anomalies, glomerular diseases, and renal cystic ciliopathies), childhood onset of chronic conditions (e.g., cancer, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity), and different lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity, diet, and factors related to socioeconomic status). The available published information suggests that the lifelong risk for CKD can be attributed to multiple factors that appear already during childhood. However, results are conflicting on the effects of childhood physical activity, diet, and dyslipidemia on future renal function. On the other hand, there is consistent evidence to support follow-up of high-risk groups.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; End stage kidney disease.