Effects of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Inhibition on the Skin/Nerve Cell Model In Vitro

J Craniofac Surg. Jul-Aug 2020;31(5):1483-1487. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006411.


The present study is based on the concept of neuro-aging and how it may affect surrounding skin cells. It has been shown that many factors play a significant role in skin homeostasis by interfering with various cytokines, either through activation or inhibition. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is generally recognized as an inflammatory cytokine, and our previous study has shown its effects on neuronal senescence after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of skin cells. Following our previous work, this study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of a GM-CSF antagonist, and how it may play an essential role in mediating anti-senescence and anti-inflammatory effects in the keratinocyte/nerve aging model. When human blastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were treated with 10 ng/ml of GM-CSF, the levels of regulatory RNAs associated with aging, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit (NFKB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) increased, whereas GM-CSF inhibition caused their expression to decrease. A decrease in the antioxidant, glutathione (GSH) was observed after SH-SY5Y cells were treated with GM-CSF. This study confirms that this GM-CSF antagonist may play an important role in neural senescence, where inhibition may be a new target in the skin/nerve aging model.

MeSH terms

  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit / metabolism
  • Nerve Tissue / drug effects
  • Nerve Tissue / metabolism
  • Neurons / drug effects*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / metabolism
  • Skin Aging / drug effects
  • Ultraviolet Rays


  • IL1B protein, human
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
  • NFKB1 protein, human
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • NOS2 protein, human
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • MMP9 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9