Progress in the distribution, toxicity, control, and detoxification of patulin: A review

Toxicon. 2020 Sep;184:83-93. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.05.006. Epub 2020 Jun 2.


Patulin (PAT) is a secondary metabolite secreted by fungi in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Enterobacter and is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple derivatives (e.g., juice, cider, preserves). Previous reports described the wide distribution of PAT and more direct and destructive toxicity than that associated with other mycotoxins. These findings underscore the need to develop new patulin control and detoxification methods and thus ensure food safety. This review comprehensively summarizes the existing research and progress in the distribution, toxicity, control, and detoxification of PAT and highlights the lack of research regarding the effects of PAT on intestinal health. We aim not only to educate health-conscious consumers about PAT but also to encourage field experts to address the existing knowledge gaps and provide a new orientation for future research.

Keywords: Degradation; Patulin; Review; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aspergillus
  • Food Contamination
  • Malus / microbiology
  • Patulin / toxicity*
  • Penicillium


  • Patulin