Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are two highly prevalent diseases among the aging population and have become major public health concerns in the 21st century, with a significant risk to each other. Both of these diseases are increasingly recognized to be multifactorial conditions. The terms "diabetes type 3" or "brain diabetes" have been proposed in recent years to provide a complete view of the potential common pathogenic mechanisms between these diseases. While insulin resistance or deficiency remains the salient hallmarks of diabetes, cognitive decline and non-cognitive abnormalities such as impairments in visuospatial function, attention, cognitive flexibility, and psychomotor speed are also present. Furthermore, amyloid aggregation and deposition may also be drivers for diabetes pathology. Here, we offer a brief appraisal of social impact and economic burden of these chronic diseases and provide insight into amyloidogenesis through considering recent advances of amyloid-β aggregates on diabetes pathology and islet amyloid polypeptide on Alzheimer's disease. Exploring the detailed knowledge of molecular interaction between these two amyloidogenic proteins opens new opportunities for therapies and biomarker development.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β peptide; amyloidogenic diseases; diabetes; in vivo models; islet amyloid polypeptide; neurodegenerative changes; neurovascular damages.