COVID-19: The Potential Role of Copper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in a Combination of Candidate Antiviral Treatments Against SARS-CoV-2

In Vivo. 2020 Jun;34(3 Suppl):1567-1588. doi: 10.21873/invivo.11946.

Abstract

Background: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic. Since then, thousands of people have suffered and died, making the need for a treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) more crucial than ever.

Materials and methods: The authors carried out a search in PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) for COVID-19 to provide information on the most promising treatments against SARS-CoV-2.

Results: Possible COVID-19 agents with promising efficacy and favorable safety profile were identified. The results support the combination of copper, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), colchicine and nitric oxide (NO) with candidate antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a treatment for patients positive for SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusion: The authors propose to study the effects of the combination of copper, NAC, colchicine, NO and currently used experimental antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a potential treatment scheme for SARS-COV-2.

Keywords: COVID-19; EIDD-2801; N-acetylcysteine (NAC); copper; remdesivir (RDV); review; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcysteine / administration & dosage
  • Acetylcysteine / pharmacology
  • Acetylcysteine / therapeutic use*
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / administration & dosage
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / analogs & derivatives*
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / therapeutic use
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Alanine / administration & dosage
  • Alanine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Alanine / pharmacology
  • Alanine / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Autophagy / drug effects
  • Betacoronavirus / drug effects
  • Betacoronavirus / physiology
  • Colchicine / administration & dosage
  • Colchicine / pharmacology
  • Colchicine / therapeutic use*
  • Copper / administration & dosage
  • Copper / therapeutic use*
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Coronavirus Infections / immunology
  • Coronavirus Infections / physiopathology
  • Drug Synergism
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Nitric Oxide / administration & dosage
  • Nitric Oxide / pharmacology
  • Nitric Oxide / therapeutic use*
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / immunology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / physiopathology
  • Prodrugs / administration & dosage
  • Prodrugs / therapeutic use
  • Ribonucleosides / administration & dosage
  • Ribonucleosides / pharmacology
  • Ribonucleosides / therapeutic use*
  • Virus Internalization / drug effects
  • Virus Replication / drug effects

Substances

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antiviral Agents
  • EIDD-2801
  • Prodrugs
  • Ribonucleosides
  • Nitric Oxide
  • remdesivir
  • Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Copper
  • Alanine
  • Colchicine
  • Acetylcysteine

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2