Background: Emicizumab is a bispecific monoclonal antibody developed for routine prophylaxis of bleeding in people with hemophilia A (PwHA). This work characterizes the pharmacokinetics of emicizumab in adult and pediatric PwHA, identifies factors contributing to its between-person variabilities, compares the pharmacokinetics following different dosing regimens, and makes a descriptive assessment of the exposure-bleeding events relationship.
Methods: A population pharmacokinetic model was developed, using a database of 389 PwHA from five clinical studies. Potential baseline covariate effects were assessed, including body size, age, race, presence of factor VIII inhibitors, and albumin levels. Using the population pharmacokinetic model, the estimated individual average exposures over the administration period were compared across categories of annualized bleeding rate.
Results: A linear one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination processes and no lag time best described the emicizumab pharmacokinetics. Body weight, albumin levels, age, and black race were statistically correlated with primary pharmacokinetic parameters, but only body weight had an important influence on exposure. Dosing regimens of 1.5 mg/kg weekly, 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks provided similar average concentrations at steady state. A trend for lower exposure was observed in the small proportion of PwHA having an annualized bleeding rate > 4 (11.9%), suggesting that reducing exposure to lower levels may potentially increase the bleeding risk.
Conclusions: Emicizumab pharmacokinetics in PwHA was described with dose-independent parameters. Body weight was an important predictor of emicizumab pharmacokinetics. All three dosing regimens are predicted to achieve similar exposure associated with clinically meaningful prevention of bleeding.