Background: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in metastatic testicular cancer is a technically challenging procedure. In right-modified RPLND, retrocaval lymph nodes are often not visible and cannot be adequately dissected using only the transperitoneal approach. In laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) for horseshoe kidney, the kidney cannot be sufficiently moved due to its connection to the contralateral kidney, and the isthmus and lower poles have separate blood supplies arising from the aorta or iliac artery. Detection of these vessels is difficult using the transperitoneal approach, and identifying and incising the isthmus is difficult using the retroperitoneal approach.
Objective: To present a new surgical transperitoneal approach combining the ventral and dorsal sides in the lateral decubitus position.
Material: In laparoscopic RPLND, we recently performed paracaval and retrocaval lymph nodes dissection (LND) from the dorsal side even in the transperitoneal approach. Following inter-aortocaval LND, the surgeon and scopist moved from the ventral to dorsal side of the patient and changed the roles of surgical ports. In this approach, the view on the monitor is similar to that in the retroperitoneal approach. We applied this technique to LN for horseshoe kidney.
Results: In RPLND combining ventral and dorsal side approaches, all lymph nodes were visible from various angles and complete dissection became easier without complications. In LN for horseshoe kidney, vessels to the isthmus could not be detected using the ventral side approach only; however, on combining the dorsal side approach all vessels were easily observed. After vessel resection, the median of the isthmus could be incised using the ventral side approach.
Conclusion: A combined ventral and dorsal side approach is a feasible, safe, and effective technique for laparoscopic right-modified RPLND or nephrectomy for horseshoe kidney.
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