A new and rapid approach for detecting COVID-19 based on S1 protein fragments

Clin Transl Med. 2020 Jun 5. doi: 10.1002/ctm2.90. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seriously threatened the public health all over the world. A colloidal gold immunochromatography assay for IgM/IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein was established to assess its rapid diagnostic value. We first designed and manufactured all contents of the test cassette of SARS-CoV-2 rapid test kit: the colloidal gold-labeled mouse-antihuman lgM/lgG antibody, the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 antigen, the nitrocellulose membrane control line, and specimen diluents. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, colloidal gold immunochromatography assay, serological validation of cross reaction with other common viruses, and clinical validation were performed. The kit was finally evaluated by 75 serum/plasma samples of SARS-CoV-2 infection cases and 139 healthy samples as control, with the result of that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for IgM were 90.67%, 97.84%, and 95.33%, whereas for IgG were 69.33%, 99.28%, and 88.79%, respectively; the combination of IgM and IgG could improve the value: 92.00%, 97.12%, and 95.33%, respectively. Therefore, the rapid detection kit has high sensitivity and specificity, especially for IgM&IgG, showing a critical value in clinical application and epidemic control of COVID-19.

Keywords: biological technology; cardiology.