Artificial intelligence, particularly deep learning, offers several possibilities to improve the quality or speed of image acquisition in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this article, we briefly review basic machine learning concepts and discuss commonly used neural network architectures for image-to-image translation. Recent examples in the literature describing application of machine learning techniques to clinical MR image acquisition or postprocessing are discussed. Machine learning can contribute to better image quality by improving spatial resolution, reducing image noise, and removing undesired motion or other artifacts. As patients occasionally are unable to tolerate lengthy acquisition times or gadolinium agents, machine learning can potentially assist MRI workflow and patient comfort by facilitating faster acquisitions or reducing exogenous contrast dosage. Although artificial intelligence approaches often have limitations, such as problems with generalizability or explainability, there is potential for these techniques to improve diagnostic utility, throughput, and patient experience in clinical MRI practice.