COVID-19 Critical Illness Pathophysiology Driven by Diffuse Pulmonary Thrombi and Pulmonary Endothelial Dysfunction Responsive to Thrombolysis

medRxiv. 2020 Apr 21;2020.04.17.20057125. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.17.20057125. Preprint

Abstract

Patients with severe COVID-19 disease have been characterized as having the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Critically ill COVID-19 patients have relatively well-preserved lung mechanics despite severe gas exchange abnormalities, a feature not consistent with classical ARDS but more consistent with pulmonary vascular disease. Patients with severe COVID-19 also demonstrate markedly abnormal coagulation, with elevated D-dimers and higher rates of venous thromboembolism. We present five cases of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia with severe respiratory failure and shock, with evidence of markedly elevated dead-space ventilation who received tPA. All showed post treatment immediate improvements in gas exchange and/or hemodynamics. We suspect that severe COVID-19 pneumonia causes respiratory failure via pulmonary microthrombi and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia may warrant anticoagulation for milder cases and thrombolysis for more severe disease.

Publication types

  • Preprint