The extraction of three families of compounds (carotenoids, fatty acids and amphidinols) from the biomass of two strains of Amphidinium carterae (ACRN03 and Dn241EHU) was improved by tuning cell disruption and solvent extraction operations. The extraction of carotenoids was evaluated using alkaline saponification (0%-60% KOH d.w.) at different temperatures (25-80 °C). High levels of carotenoids were obtained at 60 °C using freeze-dried biomass, not subjected to cell disruption methods. The ACRN03 strain required 20% KOH whereas the Dn241EHU strain did not require saponification since carotenoid degradation was observed. The extraction efficiencies were determined with a wide range of pure solvents and mixtures thereof. Two empirical non-linear equations were used to correlate extraction percentages for each family of compounds with the Hildebrand solubility parameter (δT) and the polarity index of the solvents (PI). Thresholds of δT and PI of around 20 MPa1/2 and 6, respectively, were determined for the extraction of amphidinols, consistent with antiproliferative activity measurements.
Keywords: Amphidinols; Carotenoids; Extraction process; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Solubility parameters.
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