Gastric Cancer: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Classification, Genomic Characteristics and Treatment Strategies

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 4;21(11):4012. doi: 10.3390/ijms21114012.


Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. GC is a multifactorial disease, where both environmental and genetic factors can have an impact on its occurrence and development. The incidence rate of GC rises progressively with age; the median age at diagnosis is 70 years. However, approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas are detected at the age of 45 or younger. Early-onset gastric cancer is a good model to study genetic alterations related to the carcinogenesis process, as young patients are less exposed to environmental carcinogens. Carcinogenesis is a multistage disease process specified by the progressive development of mutations and epigenetic alterations in the expression of various genes, which are responsible for the occurrence of the disease.

Keywords: H. pylori; adjuvant chemotherapy; gastric cancer; incidence; molecular markers; mortality; targeted therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease Management
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Genomics / methods
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
  • Patient Outcome Assessment
  • Population Surveillance
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / etiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms / therapy*