X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is the most potent human inhibitor of apoptosis, and is also involved in NOD2-dependent NFκB and MAPK signalling cascade activation. The absence or defective function of XIAP leads to the development of a rare and severe primary immunodeficiency known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP-2), which is characterized by a triad of clinical manifestations, including a high incidence of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoproliferation and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), usually with very early onset. Here, we present a novel XIAP mutation identified in a patient with atypical adult-onset IBD complicated by relapsing HLH, splenomegaly and sarcoid-like disease. The c.266delA mutation in the XIAP gene creates a premature stop codon, and causes a severe reduction in XIAP protein expression. The mutation is also associated with impaired spontaneous and staurosporine- and PMA-induced apoptosis accompanied by significantly increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes. We also confirmed the negative impact of this particular XIAP mutation on NOD2-dependent NFκB and MAPK activation, while NOD2-independent activation was found to be unaffected. Moreover, we assume that the mutation has an impact on the overproduction of IL-12 and IFNγ, the shift towards the Th1 immune response and increased numbers of central memory and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. All these changes contribute to immune dysregulation and the clinical manifestation of XLP-2.