Myokines and Osteokines in the Pathogenesis of Muscle and Bone Diseases

Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2020 Aug;18(4):401-407. doi: 10.1007/s11914-020-00600-8.


Purpose of review: In this review we aim to summarize the latest findings on the network of molecules produced by muscle and bone under physiological and pathological conditions.

Recent findings: The concomitant onset of osteoporosis and sarcopenia is currently one of the main threats that can increase the risk of falling fractures during aging, generating high health care costs due to hospitalization for bone fracture surgery. With the growing emergence of developing innovative therapies to treat these two age-related conditions that often have common onset, a broader understanding of molecular messengers regulating the communication between muscle and bone tissue became imperative. Recently it has been highlighted that two muscle-derived signals, such as the myokines Irisin and L-BAIBA, positively affect bone tissue. In parallel, there are signals derived from bone that affect either positively the skeletal muscle, such as osteocalcin, or negatively, such as RANKL.

Keywords: Irisin; L-BAIBA; Osteocalcin; Osteoporosis; Rank-L; Sarcopenia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aminoisobutyric Acids / metabolism
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Fibronectins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Osteocalcin / metabolism
  • Osteoporosis / metabolism*
  • RANK Ligand / metabolism
  • Sarcopenia / metabolism*


  • Aminoisobutyric Acids
  • FNDC5 protein, human
  • Fibronectins
  • RANK Ligand
  • Osteocalcin
  • 3-aminoisobutyric acid