Cost avoidance related to a pharmacist-led pharmacogenomics service for the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly

Pharmacogenomics. 2020 Jul;21(10):651-661. doi: 10.2217/pgs-2019-0197. Epub 2020 Jun 9.


Aim: Estimate cost avoidance of pharmacist recommendations for participants enrolled in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly. Materials & methods: Convenience sample of 200 pharmacogenomics consultations from the PHARM-GENOME-PACE study. Genetic variants, drug-gene interactions, drug-drug-gene interactions and phenoconversions were interrogated. Cost avoidance was estimated and adjusted for inflation. Results: In total, 165 participants had at least one actionable drug-gene pair totaling 429 drug-gene pairs, of which 158 (36.8%) were clinically actionable. Most (70.5%) pharmacists' recommendations were accepted. Estimated cost avoidance was $233,945 when all recommendations were included but conservatively $162,031 based on acceptance rates. Overall mean cost avoidance per actionable drug-gene pair was $1063 or $1983 per participant. Conclusion: Pharmacist-led pharmacogenomics services added to the traditional medication review can avoid substantial costs for payers. Clinical trial registration number: NCT03257605.

Keywords: Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly; clinical decision support; cost; drug–gene; personalized medicine; pharmacogenomics.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Drug Interactions / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Therapy Management / economics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pharmaceutical Services / economics
  • Pharmacists / economics*
  • Pharmacogenetics / economics*
  • Professional Role
  • Retrospective Studies

Associated data