Induction of CCK and GLP-1 release in enteroendocrine cells by egg white peptides generated during gastrointestinal digestion

Food Chem. 2020 May 30;329:127188. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127188. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The effect of dietary protein on the induction of intestinal hormones is recognised. However, little is known about the nature of the digestion products involved in this intestinal signalling. Our aim was to characterise egg white protein digestion products and study their ability to induce CCK and GLP-1 release in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Intestinal digests triggered GLP-1 release at a higher rate than gastric digests. Peptides, but not free amino acids, showed a potent GLP-1 secretagogue effect, while proteins only had a modest effect. CCK was released in response to peptides and free amino acids but not proteins. Two hydrophobic negatively charged peptides triggered CCK release, while the highest GLP-1 response was found with a hydrophobic positively charged peptide, pointing to the involvement of different receptors or active sites. Identifying peptide sequences and receptors involved in hormonal secretion could open up new ways to control food intake and glucose metabolism.

Keywords: CCK; Enteroendocrine cells; GLP-1; Intestinal signalling; Protein digestion.