CYP2D6 Genetic Polymorphisms and Risperidone Pharmacokinetics: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Pharmacotherapy. 2020 Jul;40(7):632-647. doi: 10.1002/phar.2434. Epub 2020 Jul 12.


Background: Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic drug metabolized to an active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4. The extent to which drug metabolism genetics impacts risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone exposure has not been clarified.

Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the impact of genetically defined CYP2D6 function on risperidone pharmacokinetics applying a standardized genotype-phenotype translation system.

Methods: A comprehensive electronic database search identified studies reporting relationships between genetically determined CYP2D6 metabolism and risperidone pharmacokinetic properties. The exposure of risperidone or active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) was measured by dose-adjusted steady-state serum or plasma concentration or area under the concentration-time curve as primary outcomes. Subjects were assigned to CYP2D6 poor metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer, normal metabolizer, or ultrarapid metabolizer groups using a standardized genotype-phenotype translation method. Effect sizes between groups were pooled and stratified by single or multiple dosing regimens.

Results: A total of 15 studies involving 2125 adult subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Following multiple-dose oral administration, compared with CYP2D6 normal metabolizers, the risperidone dose-adjusted steady-state serum/plasma concentration was 2.35-fold higher in intermediate metabolizers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77-3.13, p<0.0001) and 6.20-fold higher in poor metabolizers (95% CI 5.05-7.62, p<0.0001); the active moiety dose-adjusted steady-state concentration was 1.18-fold higher in intermediate metabolizers (95% CI 1.11-1.25, p<0.0001) and 1.44-fold higher in poor metabolizers (95% CI 1.23-1.69, p<0.0001). Higher area under the concentration-time curve of risperidone and active moiety was also found in single-dose studies.

Conclusion: Genetically defined impaired CYP2D6 activity is associated with increased exposure of both risperidone and risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone in adults receiving oral formulations. Additional studies are needed to quantify the clinical impact of these relationships.

Keywords: CYP2D6; meta-analysis; pharmacogenetics; pharmacokinetics; risperidone.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Antipsychotic Agents / blood
  • Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Risperidone / blood
  • Risperidone / pharmacokinetics*


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • Risperidone