Purpose: The main focus of the current research work was to unveil the anticancer activity of the naturally occurring Sinensetin flavone against aggressive gall bladder cancer adenocarcinoma (GBAC) TJ-GBC2 cell line. Its effect of inducing apoptosis mediated via targeting PTEN/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway were also examined along with cell migration and invasion.
Methods: Cell proliferation was tested by MTT cell viability assay. Fluorescence microscopy was utilized to carry out apoptosis related studies via DAPI staining along with flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assay. Further, western blotting analysis was carried out to examine the effects of Sinensetin on the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins and Bax Bcl-2 along with PTEN/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. The impact of the test molecule on cell migration and invasion was studied through wound healing assay and transwell cell invasion assay respectively.
Results: The results showed that Sinensetin treatment caused a significant retardation in cell viability, in a dose-dependent fashion. DAPI staining assay and annexin V/PI assay revealed that the cell viability of GBC cells was retarded due to induction of apoptosis. It was also associated with downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax levels. Further, wound healing assay and transwell cell invasion assay revealed that cell migration as well as cell invasion of cancer gallbladder cells was decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion. It was further seen that Sinensetin treatment resulted in inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and enhancement of MMP-9 protein expressions. Results also showed that the tested molecule had the potential to inhibit PTEN/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the current study indicated that Sinensetin flavone has the potential to be developed as a candidate drug against gallbladder adenocarcinoma provided more toxicological and in vivo studies are carried out.