Background: Levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with the short-term prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). No previous study, however, has ascertained if EPCs are related also to long-term outcome. We performed a pre-specified analysis of the PROCREATION (PROgenitor Cells role in Restenosis and progression of coronary ATherosclerosis after percutaneous coronary intervention) study in order to assess if EPCs predict the 10-year prognosis.
Methods and results: Consecutive stable patients with CAD who were included in the PROCREATION study were evaluated. Patients underwent an extended 10-year follow-up to assess major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), i.e. death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. During follow-up, MACCE occurred in 79 of 149 patients (53%). Most clinical and angiographic baseline variables were similar in patients with or without MACCE, apart from age, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, ejection fraction, and extent of CAD. Comparison of EPCs, conversely, showed that patients with MACCE had greater levels of CD34+/KDR+/CD45- cells (p=0.0002) and CD133+/KDR+/CD45- cells (p=0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that factors independently associated with 10-year MACCEs were age (p=0.001), ejection fraction (p=0.018), and CD34+/KDR+/CD45- cells (p=0.024).
Conclusion: Subpopulations of EPCs can improve long-term risk factor characterization in patients with CAD. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01575431).
Keywords: Endothelial progenitor cells; ischemic heart disease; prognosis.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.