Previously, we performed an in silico analysis of the Periplaneta americana transcriptome. Antimicrobial peptide candidates were selected using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method. It was found that periplanetasin-5 had antimicrobial activity against yeast and grampositive and gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activities of periplanetasin-5 in mouse macrophage Raw264.7 cells. No cytotoxicity was observed at 60 μg/ml periplanetasin-5, and treatment decreased nitric oxide production in Raw264.7 cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that periplanetasin-5 reduced cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) expression levels in the Raw264.7 cells. Periplanetasin-5 controlled inflammation by inhibiting phosphorylation of MAPKs, an inflammatory signaling element, and reducing the degradation of IκB. Through LAL assay, LPS toxicity was found to decrease in a periplanetasin-5 dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these data showed that periplanetasin-5 had antiinflammatory activities, exemplified in LPS-exposed Raw264.7 cells. Thus, we have provided a potentially useful antibacterial peptide candidate with anti-inflammatory activities.
Keywords: Periplaneta americana; Periplanetasin-5; anti-inflammatory activity; antimicrobial peptide; cockroach.