Candidaemia Mortality Has not Changed Over the Last 2 Decades in Brazil

Mycopathologia. 2020 Aug;185(4):685-690. doi: 10.1007/s11046-020-00466-5. Epub 2020 Jun 10.


Despite advances in fungal diagnostics and antifungal therapy, mortality associated with candidaemia remains very high, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we reviewed the Brazilian literature on candidaemia over the last 20 years (1999-2019), with the aim to document if mortality rates changed over the years in Brazil. Variables studied included number of patients with candidaemia per study, age, most prevalent Candida species and use of antifungals. Selected manuscripts evaluated a median of 114 patients, the majority being men (54.4%). Median age was 45 year-old. The most prevalent species in all studies was C. albicans (37.3%), followed by C. parapsilosis (23.0%). An increase in use of echinocandins occurred in recent years, with a proportional decrease in the use of fluconazole and amphotericin B. Surprisingly, mortality of candidaemia has remained unchanged over the years in the largest Latin American country, regardless of treatment with echinocandins. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

Keywords: Brazil; Candidaemia; Echinocandins; Invasive fungal infections; Mortality; Treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Candida
  • Candidemia / drug therapy
  • Candidemia / mortality*
  • Echinocandins
  • Female
  • Fluconazole
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Middle Aged


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Echinocandins
  • Fluconazole