Transcription growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling-triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is associated with tumor stemness, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. However, the epigenomic basis for TGF-β-induced EMT remains largely unknown. Here we reveal that HDAC1-mediated global histone deacetylation and the gain of specific histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac)-marked enhancers are essential for the TGF-β-induced EMT process. Enhancers gained upon TGF-β treatment are linked to gene activation of EMT markers and cancer metastasis. Notably, dynamic enhancer gain or loss mainly occurs within pre-existing topologically associated domains (TADs) in epithelial cells, with minimal three-dimensional (3D) genome architecture reorganization. Through motif enrichment analysis of enhancers that are lost or gained upon TGF-β stimulation, we identify FOXA2 as a key factor to activate epithelial-specific enhancer activity, and we also find that TEAD4 forms a complex with SMAD2/3 to mediate TGF-β signaling-triggered mesenchymal enhancer reprogramming. Together, our results implicate that key transcription-factor (TF)-mediated enhancer reprogramming modulates the developmental transition in TGF-β signaling-associated cancer metastasis.
Keywords: EMT; FOXA2; Hi-C; TEAD2; TEAD4; TGFβ; enhancer reprogramming; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; metastasis.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.