Background: Pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum that often leaves survivors with severe neurologic impairment. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) as a result of cerebral edema has been identified as a major predictor of morbidity and mortality in CM. Past studies have demonstrated that survivors are more likely to have resolution of elevated ICP and that efficient management of ICP crises may lead to better outcomes. However, data on invasive brain tissue oxygen monitoring are unknown.
Case description: We report a case of a pediatric patient with cerebral malaria who developed encephalopathy and cerebral edema and describe the pathophysiology of this disease process with invasive ICP and brain tissue oxygen multimodality neuromonitoring. The utilization of both ICP and brain tissue oxygen monitoring allowed prompt diagnosis and successful treatment of severe intracranial hypertension and low brain tissue oxygenation crisis. The patient was discharged to home in good neurologic condition.
Conclusions: Multimodality neuromonitoring may be considered in pediatric patients who have cerebral edema and encephalopathy from CM.
Keywords: Artesunate; Brain oxygenation; Cerebral malaria; Intracranial pressure; Licox neuromonitoring; Neurocritical care; Pediatric.
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