Five-year Survival Prediction and Safety Outcomes with Enzalutamide in Men with Chemotherapy-naïve Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer from the PREVAIL Trial

Eur Urol. 2020 Sep;78(3):347-357. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2020.04.061. Epub 2020 Jun 9.


Background: In the PREVAIL study, enzalutamide significantly improved clinical outcomes versus placebo in patients with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Objective: To evaluate long-term benefits and risks of enzalutamide in the final prespecified PREVAIL analysis.

Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a final 5-yr survival analysis of PREVAIL in men with chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC from the enzalutamide (n = 689) and placebo (n = 693) arms.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Predictors of the primary outcome of overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Long-term adverse events over time were analyzed.

Results and limitations: At the 5-yr data cutoff, 1382 of 1717 (80%) men had died. Enzalutamide reduced the hazard of death by 17% (hazard ratio 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93; p < 0.001), despite 65%, 54%, and 43% of placebo-treated patients receiving subsequent docetaxel, abiraterone, and enzalutamide, respectively. Median overall survival was 36 mo (95% CI 34-38) in the enzalutamide arm versus 31 mo (95% CI 29-34) in the placebo arm, with a median follow-up of 69 mo. Prognostic modeling showed 5-yr survival rates of 42%, 24%, and 5% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Greater degrees of confirmed prostate-specific antigen declines (≤3 mo) were associated with greater 5-yr survival. A higher incidence of fatal treatment-emergent adverse events was observed with enzalutamide (6.9% vs 3.8%), with an increase in fatal cardiovascular events (1.6% vs 0.4%).

Conclusions: With >5 yr of follow-up, enzalutamide continued to demonstrate improved survival in patients with mCRPC despite crossover and multiple subsequent effective therapies, balanced against a slightly higher rate of fatal cardiovascular events. PREVAIL is registered on as NCT01212991.

Patient summary: We report a maintained long-term survival benefit with enzalutamide and risks with >5 yr of enzalutamide treatment and follow-up in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and identify groups of men with widely different outcomes based on clinical factors.

Keywords: Enzalutamide; Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; Multivariable model; Overall survival; Prostate-specific antigen; Safety.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Benzamides / adverse effects
  • Benzamides / therapeutic use*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nitriles / adverse effects
  • Nitriles / therapeutic use*
  • Phenylthiohydantoin / adverse effects
  • Phenylthiohydantoin / therapeutic use*
  • Prognosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / drug therapy*
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Benzamides
  • Nitriles
  • Phenylthiohydantoin
  • enzalutamide

Associated data