Urinary Lithogenic Risk Profile in ADPKD Patients Treated with Tolvaptan

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Jul 1;15(7):1007-1014. doi: 10.2215/CJN.13861119. Epub 2020 Jun 11.


Background and objectives: Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and significantly contributes to patient morbidity. Recently, Tolvaptan has been introduced for the treatment of ADPKD, but whether it is associated with alterations of the urinary lithogenic risk profile remains unknown.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted an analysis of participants enrolled in the Bern ADPKD registry, a prospective observational cohort study. Twenty-four-hour urine analyses were performed at baseline and then at yearly follow-ups. Relative supersaturation ratios for calcium oxalate, brushite, and uric acid were calculated with the program EQUIL2. Unadjusted and multivariable mixed-effects linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, eGFR, net acid excretion, and height-adjusted total kidney volume, were used to assess the association of Tolvaptan with urinary parameters relevant for kidney stone formation. The maximum individual follow-up time was 3 years, median follow-up time 1.9 years, and cumulative follow-up time 169 years.

Results: In total, 125 participants (38 with and 87 without Tolvaptan treatment) were included in the analysis. In multivariable analysis, Tolvaptan treatment was associated [adjusted estimate of the difference between Tolvaptan and no Tolvaptan; 95% confidence interval (CI)] with lower urine relative supersaturation ratios for calcium oxalate (-0.56; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.3; P<0.001), brushite (-0.33; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.11; P=0.004), and uric acid (-0.62; 95% CI, -0.88 to -0.37; P<0.001), and with higher urine citrate in mmol/mmol creatinine per day (0.25; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.02) and calcium in mmol/mmol creatinine per day (0.31; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.53; P=0.006) excretion. In addition, Tolvaptan treatment was associated with lower net acid excretion in mEq/mmol creatinine per day (-0.54; 95% CI, -0.90 to -0.17; P=0.004) and higher net gastrointestinal alkali absorption in mEq/mmol creatinine per day (0.57; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.88; P<0.001).

Conclusions: Tolvaptan treatment is associated with a significantly improved urinary lithogenic risk profile in patients with ADPKD.

Keywords: ADPKD; alkalies; autosomal dominant; body mass index; calcium oxalate; calcium phosphate; citric acid; cohort studies; creatinine; dibasic; dihydrate; follow-up studies; glomerular filtration rate; kidney calculi; kidney stones; linear models; polycystic kidney; prospective studies; tolvaptan; uric acid.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Calcium Oxalate / urine
  • Calcium Phosphates / urine
  • Citric Acid / urine
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nephrolithiasis / etiology
  • Nephrolithiasis / urine*
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / complications
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / drug therapy*
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / urine*
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Tolvaptan / therapeutic use*
  • Uric Acid / urine


  • Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists
  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Tolvaptan
  • Calcium Oxalate
  • Uric Acid
  • Citric Acid
  • Creatinine
  • calcium phosphate, dibasic, dihydrate