Clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics and model-informed precision dosing to improve patient care

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Feb;88(4):1418-1426. doi: 10.1111/bcp.14426. Epub 2020 Jul 8.


Providing maximal therapeutic efficacy without toxicity is a universal goal of rational drug therapy. However, substantial between-patient variability in drug response often impedes such successful treatments and brings the necessity of tailoring drug dose to individual needs for more precise therapy. In many cases plenty of patient characteristics, such as body size, genetic makeup and environmental factors, need to be taken into consideration to find the optimal dose in clinical practice. A pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model-informed approach offers integration of various patient information to provide an expectation of drug response and derive practical dose estimates to support clinicians' dosing decisions. Such an approach was pioneered in the late 1970s, but its broad clinical acceptance and implementation have been hampered by the lack of widespread computer technology, including user-friendly software tools. This has significantly changed in recent years. With the advent of electronic health records (EHRs) and the ubiquity of user-friendly software tools, we now experience a convergence of clinical information, pharmacogenetics, systems pharmacology and pharmacometrics, and technology. Advanced pharmacometrics research is now more appliable and implementable to improve health care. This article presents examples of successful development and implementation of pharmacogenetics-guided and PK/PD model-informed decision support to facilitate precision dosing, including the development of an EHR-embedded decision support tool. Through the integration of clinical decision support tools in EHRs, clinical pharmacometrics support can be brought directly to the clinical team and the bedside.

Keywords: pediatrics; pharmacogenetics; pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics; pharmacometrics; precision dosing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Electronic Health Records*
  • Humans
  • Patient Care
  • Pharmacogenetics*
  • Software