The paper presents an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with low transconductance (0.62-6.28 nS) and low power consumption (28-270 nW) for the low-frequency analog front-ends in biomedical sensor interfaces. The proposed OTA implements an innovative, highly linear voltage-to-current converter based on the channel-length-modulation effect, which can be rail-to-rail driven. At 1-V supply and 1-Vpp asymmetrical input driving, the linearity error in the current-voltage characteristics is 1.5%, while the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output current is 0.8%. For a symmetrical 2-Vpp input drive, the linearity error is 0.3%, whereas THD reaches 0.2%. The linearity is robust for the mismatch and the process-voltage-and-temperature (PVT) variations. The temperature drift of transconductance is 10 pS/°C. The prototype circuit was fabricated in 180-nanometer CMOS technology.
Keywords: CMOS; biomedical electronics; biomedical sensor interface; low-voltage low-power electronics; operational transconductance amplifier (OTA); very low frequency.