Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are valuable bioactive polysaccharides that have been highly used in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Extensive research was done to ensure their efficient extraction from marine and terrestrial by-products at a high yield and purity, using specific techniques to isolate and purify them. In general, the cartilage is the most common source for CS, while the vitreous humor is main used source of HA. The developed methods were based in general on tissue hydrolysis, removal of proteins and purification of the target biopolymers. They differ in the extraction conditions, enzymes and/or solvents used and the purification technique. This leads to specific purity, molecular weight and sulfation pattern of the isolated HA and CS. This review focuses on the analysis and comparison of different extraction and purification methods developed to isolate these valuable biopolymers from marine and terrestrial animal by-products.
Keywords: Biomass; By-products; Chondroitin sulfate; Extraction methodology; Glycosaminoglycans; Hyaluronic acid; Isolation; Marine; Purification; Terrestrial.
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