Childhood rare lung diseases comprise a large number of heterogeneous respiratory disorders that are individually rare but are collectively associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare resource utilization. Although the genetic mechanisms for several of these disorders have been elucidated, the pathogenesis mechanisms for others remain poorly understood and treatment options remain limited. Childhood rare lung diseases are enriched for genetic etiologies; identification of the disease mechanisms underlying these rare disorders can inform the biology of normal human lung development and has implications for the treatment of more common respiratory diseases in children and adults. Advances in "-omics" technology, such as genomic sequencing, clinical phenotyping, biomarker discovery, genome editing, in vitro and model organism disease modeling, single-cell analyses, cellular imaging, and high-throughput drug screening have enabled significant progress for diagnosis and treatment of rare childhood lung diseases. The most striking example of this progress has been realized for patients with cystic fibrosis for whom effective, personalized therapies based on CFTR genotype are now available. In this chapter, we focus on recent technology advances in childhood rare lung diseases, acknowledge persistent challenges, and identify promising new technologies that will impact not only biological discovery, but also improve diagnosis, therapies, and survival for children with these rare disorders.
Keywords: emerging technologies; genomic diagnosis; rare lung disease.
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