Association of maternal diabetes with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring: A meta-analysis and review

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Jul;165:108269. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108269. Epub 2020 Jun 12.


Aims: Researches on the relationship between maternal pregestational or gestational diabetes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring provided inconsistent findings; therefore, we performed an updated and comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the available evidence.

Metholds: Relevant articles in Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase, and Wanfang database published until January 2019 were searched without language restriction. We performed a meta-analysis about maternal pregestational and gestational diabetes and risk of ADHD in offspring using odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR), hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) extracted from each study.

Results: Seven articles were included in this study and a total of 3,169,529 participants were accumulated. We found maternal pregestational diabetes increased the risk of ADHD in offspring by 44% (95% CI was 1.32-1.57).

Conclusions: Maternal pregestational diabetes is a potential adverse risk of ADHD in offspring. Considering the limited amount of reliable information availabe. In the future, more in-depth and detailed researches, especially population-based prospective cohort studies, are needed to explore this topic more comprehensively.

Keywords: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Diabetes; Maternal; Meta; Offspring.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / etiology*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / genetics*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult