Multiple assays in a real-time RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 panel can mitigate the risk of loss of sensitivity by new genomic variants during the COVID-19 outbreak

Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;97:225-229. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.027. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Abstract

Objectives: In this study, five SARS-CoV-2 PCR assay panels were evaluated against the accumulated genetic variability of the virus to assess the effect on sensitivity of the individual assays.

Design or methods: As of week 21, 2020, the complete set of available SARS-CoV-2 genomes from GISAID and GenBank databases were used in this study. SARS-CoV-2 primer sequences from publicly available panels (WHO, CDC, NMDC, and HKU) and QIAstat-Dx were included in the alignment, and accumulated genetic variability affecting any oligonucleotide annealing was annotated.

Results: A total of 11,627 (34.38%) genomes included single mutations affecting annealing of any PCR assay. Variations in 8,773 (25.94%) genomes were considered as high risk, whereas additional 2,854 (8.43%) genomes presented low frequent single mutations and were predicted to yield no impact on sensitivity. In case of the QIAstat-Dx SARS-CoV-2 Panel, 99.11% of the genomes matched with a 100% coverage all oligonucleotides, and critical variations were tested in vitro corroborating no loss of sensitivity.

Conclusions: This analysis stresses the importance of targeting more than one region in the viral genome for SARS-CoV-2 detection to mitigate the risk of loss of sensitivity due to the unknown mutation rate during this SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.

Keywords: Genomic variants; RT-PCR performance; SARS-CoV-2; Sensitivity.

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus / genetics*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / diagnosis*
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / diagnosis*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction*
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2