In the current study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize and assess whether short sleep duration is associated with appetite-regulating hormones and adipokine levels. Reference databases were searched for studies related to sleep and appetite-regulating hormones and adipokines. Qualitative and quantitative syntheses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and the level of appetite-regulating hormones and adipokines, including leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, and orexin. Twenty-one of 3536 studies, covering a total of 2250 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Leptin, ghrelin, and adiponectin were included in the meta-analysis. Ghrelin levels were higher in the short sleep group (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.14, 95% CI [0.03, 0.25], p = 0.01). Significant differences between the short sleep group and recommended sleep group were also noted in leptin level experimental subgroup studies (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI [0.03, 0.35], p = 0.02) and ghrelin level cross-sectional subgroup studies (SMD = 0.14, 95% CI [0.02, 0.27], p = 0.03). A rise in leptin and ghrelin levels were also observed in sleep deprivation groups (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI [0.10, 0.39], p = 0.001 and SMD = 0.18, 95% CI [0.04, 0.33], p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, short sleep duration is associated with an increased ghrelin level, while sleep deprivation had a significant effect on the levels of both leptin and ghrelin.
Keywords: adiponectin; biomarkers; ghrelin; leptin; obesity; sleep deprivation.
© 2020 World Obesity Federation.