Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) demonstrated good glycemic efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) recent years, whereas studies on GLP-1 RAs' biliary effects were limited. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of exenatide on bile acids (BAs) and investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide.
Methods: Thirty-eight newly diagnosed T2DM participants without glucose-lowering drugs intake were recruited. Plasma total bile acids in fasting state (FTBAs) and other parameters were tested at baseline. Then exenatide were applied to the T2DM participants for 12 weeks. FTBAs and glycemic parameters were measured again after exenatide treatment, and correlation analysis between changes of FTBAs and glycemic parameters were conducted to investigate the role of BAs in the glycemic control effect of exenatide.
Results: The baseline FTBAs level of T2DM patients had no significance (3.84 ± 2.06 vs. 3.87 ± 2.89, P = 0.954) compared with healthy subjects. After 12-week exenatide treatment for the T2DM patients, FTBAs were decreased from 3.84 ± 2.06 μmol/L to 3.06 ± 1.27 μmol/L (P < 0.01). The correlation analysis showed that changes of FTBAs was positively correlated with changes of FPG (r = 0.355, P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a decreased FTBAs level after exenatide treatment for 12 weeks, without the interference of metformin and other glucose-lowering drugs. The reduction of FTBAs might not exert a positive role in the glycemic control effect of exenatide.
Trial registration: Trial registration number: NCT04303819. Registered in March 11, 2020 - Retrospectively registered.
Keywords: Bile acids; Exenatide; Glycemic control; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.