Linguistic Validation of the Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare in Spanish and Cultural Validation for 8 Spanish Speaking Countries

Simul Healthc. 2021 Feb 1;16(1):13-19. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000468.


Introduction: Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare (DASH) is an instrument to assist in developing and evaluating faculty debriefing and instructional skills that, in the context of trained raters, yields reliable data and internal consistency. Support for its validity is grounded in both its content and the scores arising from its use. The utilization of this and other assessment tools, guidelines, and protocols is expanding internationally, but most of them are available only in English and there is not a single established methodology for translation. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate a translation technique and conduct a linguistic validation of the translation of the DASH from English to Spanish and to demonstrate and conduct a cultural validation across 8 Spanish-speaking countries.

Methods: A forward translation and review of the DASH score sheets and Rater's Handbook defined the consensus harmonized version. A backward translation was reviewed by the original authors and discussed with the translators to produce the approved harmonized version. This was then tested through a questionnaire to assess clarity, comprehensiveness, appropriateness, and cultural relevance among 5 monolingual subjects from 8 Spanish-speaking countries.

Results: During the forward translation, 16 discrepancies were detected in the Spanish DASH. Sixty-two participants were sent the Spanish cultural questionnaire and 48% responded. A total of 82 different interpretations and 57 extra recommendations (42% terms, 16% concepts, and 42% syntax) were made. Twenty-seven percent of them were applied.

Conclusions: The translated DASH has undergone a linguistic validation into Spanish, and a cultural validation across 8 Spanish-speaking countries. It may be used to assess debriefings in healthcare settings in these countries. The methodology used is applicable for translating and assessing a cross-cultural validation of assessment instruments.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Linguistics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Simulation Training*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Translating*