Biloma: A Rare Manifestation of Spontaneous Bile Leak

Cureus. 2020 May 14;12(5):e8116. doi: 10.7759/cureus.8116.


A biloma is an intrahepatic or extrahepatic encapsulated collection of bile outside of the biliary tree and within the abdominal cavity. Hepatobiliary interventions and laparoscopic cholecystectomy are the most common etiologies of biloma followed by abdominal trauma, choledocholithiasis, and biliary dilation secondary to biliary stricture. We report a case of a 91-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with an acute onset of epigastric and right upper quadrant sharp pain for one day that radiated to the back, and was associated with two to three episodes of vomiting. Initial abdominal imaging including CT scan, ultrasound and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a distended gallbladder with wall thickening, but without evidence of pancreatitis or gallstones. Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan findings were consistent with extrahepatic biliary leakage into the peritoneum. A cholangiogram demonstrated a perihepatic biloma. A combined approach using fluoroscopic-guided biloma drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-guided biliary stent placement across the site of the biliary leak resulted in the complete resolution of symptoms. Biloma should be included in the differential diagnosis of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: : biloma; ercp; hepatobiliary interventions; pancreatitis; percutaneous drainage; spontaneous bile leak.

Publication types

  • Case Reports