Does commercially available shoulder arthroplasty preoperative planning software agree with surgeon measurements of version, inclination, and subluxation?

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2021 Feb;30(2):413-420. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2020.05.027. Epub 2020 Jun 13.


Background: Preoperative planning with commercially available imaging software in shoulder arthroplasty may allow for improved decision-making and more accurate placement of the glenoid component.

Methods: A total of 81 consecutive shoulder computed tomography scans obtained for preoperative planning purposes for shoulder arthroplasty were analyzed by commercially available software from 4 companies (Blueprint: Wright Medical, Memphis, TN, USA; GPS: Exactech, Gainesville, FL, USA; Materialise: DJO, Vista, CA, USA; and VIP: Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) and by 5 fellowship-trained sports medicine/shoulder surgeons. Inclination, version, and subluxation of the humerus were measured in a blinded fashion on axial and coronal sequences at the mid-glenoid. Surgeon measurements were analyzed for agreement and were compared with the 4 commercial programs.

Results: Surgeon reliability was acceptable for version (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.876), inclination (ICC: 0.84), and subluxation (ICC: 0.523). Significant differences were found between surgeon and commercial software measurements in version (P = .03), inclination (P = .023), and subluxation (P < .001). Software measurements tended to be more superiorly inclined (average -2° to 2° greater), more retroverted (average 2°-5° greater), and more posteriorly subluxed (average 7°-10° greater) than surgeon measurements. In comparing imaging software measurements, only Blueprint was found to produce significantly different version measurements than surgeon measurements (P = .02).

Conclusion: Preoperative planning software for shoulder arthroplasty has limited agreement in measures of version, inclination, and subluxation measurements, whereas surgeons have high inter-reliability. Surgeons should be cautious when using commercial software planning systems and when comparing publications that use different planning systems to determine preoperative glenoid deformity measurements.

Keywords: Shoulder arthroplasty; accuracy; inclination; preoperative planning software; subluxation; version.

MeSH terms

  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder*
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Shoulder Joint* / diagnostic imaging
  • Shoulder Joint* / surgery
  • Software
  • Surgeons*