Soil, Hand, and Body Adherence Measures across Four Beach Areas: Potential Influence on Exposure to Oil Spill Chemicals

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 12;17(12):4196. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17124196.


Skin adherence (SA) of soil affects exposure from soil contaminants through dermal routes via loading on the skin and through ingestion routes through hand to mouth activities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships between adherence versus child-specific and environmental factors. Two sets of soil-to-skin adherence were evaluated. The first was based on loading on hands following hand presses (Hand SA). The second was based on body rinses following one hour of play activities on the beach (Body SA). Results for 98-119 children conducted at four beach sites show that mean Hand SA was 35.7 mg/cm2 (std. dev. 41.8 mg/cm2), while Body SA based on full coverage was 352.3 mg/cm2 (std. dev. 250.4 mg/cm2). Statistically significant differences in Body SA were observed between male (419.2 mg/cm2) and female (300.4 mg/cm2) children (p < 0.05). No significant difference by sex was found for Hand SA. Other statistically different observations were that Hand SA (p < 0.05), but not Body SA, differed across the four beaches (p < 0.05). For Hand SA, this difference was associated soil size variability across the beaches. Hand and Body SA values measured during this study are recommended for use in risk assessments that evaluate beach exposures to oil spill chemicals for young children.

Keywords: beach exposures; body adherence; children’s exposures; hand adherence; risk of exposure to oil spill contaminants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Hand*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Petroleum Pollution*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants* / analysis


  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants