Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the first 63 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19: An experience from Oman

J Infect Public Health. 2020 Jul;13(7):906-913. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.002. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Abstract

Introduction: To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Oman.

Methods: A case series of hospitalized COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed patients between February 24th through April 24th, 2020, from two hospitals in Oman. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics.

Results: The cohort included 63 patients with an overall mean age of 48±16 years and 84% (n=53) were males. A total of 38% (n=24) of the hospitalized patients were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty one percent (n=32) of patients had at least one co-morbidity with diabetes mellitus (DM) (32%; n=20) and hypertension (32%; n=20) as the most common co-morbidities followed by chronic heart and renal diseases (12.8%; n=8). The most common presenting symptoms at onset of illness were fever (84%; n=53), cough (75%; n=47) and shortness of breaths (59%; n=37). All except two patients (97%; n=61) were treated with either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, while the three most prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (79%; n=50), azithromycin (71%; n=45), and the piperacillin/tazobactam combination (49%; n=31). A total of 59% (n=37), 49% (n=31) and 24% (n=15) of the patients were on lopinavir/ritonavir, interferons, or steroids, respectively. Mortality was documented in (8%; n=5) of the patients while 68% (n=43) of the study cohort recovered. Mortality was associated with those that were admitted to ICU (19% vs 0; p=0.009), mechanically ventilated (31% vs 0; p=0.001), had DM (20% vs 2.3%; p=0.032), older (62 vs 47 years; p=0.045), had high total bilirubin (43% vs 2.3%; p=0.007) and those with high C-reactive protein (186 vs 90mg/dL; p=0.009) and low corrected calcium (15% vs 0%; p=0.047).

Conclusions: ICU admission, those on mechanical ventilation, the elderly, those with high total bilirubin and low corrected calcium were associated with high mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: COVID 19; Clinical characteristics; Oman; Outcomes; SARS-CoV-2.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aging
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • Bilirubin / blood
  • Calcium / blood
  • Cohort Studies
  • Coronavirus Infections / complications
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oman / epidemiology
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / complications
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • Respiration, Artificial
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Bilirubin
  • Calcium

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2