Collagen I is a major tendon protein whose polypeptide chains are linked by covalent crosslinks. It is unknown how the crosslinking contributes to the mechanical properties of tendon or whether crosslinking changes in response to stretching or relaxation. Since their discovery, imine bonds within collagen have been recognized as being important in both crosslink formation and collagen structure. They are often described as acidic or thermally labile, but no evidence is available from direct measurements of crosslink levels whether these bonds contribute to the mechanical properties of collagen. Here, we used MS to analyze these imine bonds after reduction with sodium borohydride while under tension and found that their levels are altered in stretched tendon. We studied the changes in crosslink bonding in tail tendon from 11-week-old C57Bl/6 mice at 4% physical strain, at 10% strain, and at breaking point. The crosslinks hydroxy-lysino-norleucine (HLNL), dihydroxy-lysino-norleucine (DHLNL), and lysino-norleucine (LNL) in-creased or decreased depending on the specific crosslink and amount of mechanical strain. We also noted a decrease in glycated lysine residues in collagen, indicating that the imine formed between circulating glucose and lysine is also stress labile. We also carried out mechanical testing, including cyclic testing at 4% strain, stress relaxation tests, and stress-strain profiles taken at breaking point, both with and without sodium borohydride reduction. The results from both the MS studies and mechanical testing provide insights into the chemical changes during tendon stretching and directly link these chemical changes to functional collagen properties.
Keywords: Tendon; chemistry; collagen; connective tissue; crosslinks; glycation; imine bond; mechanical stress; physical strain; protein crosslinking; stress.
© 2020 Stammers et al.