Meal-Time Supplementation with Betaine HCl for Functional Hypochlorhydria: What is the Evidence?

Integr Med (Encinitas). 2020 Feb;19(1):32-36.


It is well established that the inadequate intake of key nutrients can lead to nutrient deficiency-related phenomena. However, even when the intake of nutrients is sufficient, the inadequate digestion and/or absorption of macronutrients, micronutrients or other therapeutic compounds from the diet (i.e., phytonutrients) can result in similar clinical consequences. These consequences include classic GI-related symptoms related to malabsorption, as well as a broad range of clinical and subclinical signs and symptoms (though many nutrient insufficiencies are difficult to diagnose). Along with food matrix issues, the integrative and functional medicine community has long considered inadequate levels of stomach acid, pancreatic enzymes and/or bile acid secretion to greatly contribute to an individual's risk for maldigestion or malabsorption.

Publication types

  • Review