Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder. Typically, it is characterized by hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, menstrual disorders and infertility. To date, its pathogenesis remains unclear. However, insulin resistance (IR) is considered as the primary pathological basis for its reproductive dysfunction. On the other hand, a condition in which insulin is over-secreted is called hyperinsulinemia. IR/Hyperinsulinemia is associated with chronic inflammation, hormonal changes, follicular dysplasia, endometrial receptivity changes, and abortion or infertility. Additionally, it increases incidence of complications during pregnancy and has been associated with anxiety, depression, and other psychological disorders. Gut microbiota, the "second genome" acquired by the human body, can promote metabolism, immune response through interaction with the external environment. Gut microbiota dysbiosis can cause IR, which is closely linked to the occurrence of PCOS. This article reviewed recent findings on the roles of gut microbiota in the development of insulin resistance and the mechanism underlying polycystic ovary syndrome.
Keywords: Gut microbiota; Hyperandrogenism; Insulin resistance; PCOS.