This study analyzed the relationship between infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and changes in the pulmonary system. Cohort and case-control study models that analyzed a causal association between HTLV-1 and changes in the pulmonary system were considered. There were no restrictions on language and publication period. The study was registered in the PROSPERO systematic analysis database (Protocol No. CRD42017078236) and was prepared according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The following databases were used: PubMed, BVS Regional Portal, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science. We utilized the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the methodological quality of published studies and the Kappa coefficient to assess the agreement level between two reviewers. Of the total 1156 studies retrieved by the search strategy, 28 were considered potentially eligible (Kappa test = 0.928). Of the 28 studies, three fully met the inclusion criteria. These indicated that pulmonary lesions, such as bronchiectasis and bronchitis/bronchiolitis, were observed in patients with HTLV-1, with high-resolution computed tomography of the chest being the main method of diagnostic investigation. The analyzed cohort and case-control studies indicated an etiological relationship between HTLV-1 infection and the presence of lung lesions, with emphasis on bronchiectasis in the presence of high viral loads, as well as a higher mortality in these individuals compared with the general population.
Keywords: Case-control study; Cohort study; Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1; Respiratory tract disease; Review.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.