Housestaff perceptions on training and discussing the Maryland Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment Form (MOLST)

PLoS One. 2020 Jun 19;15(6):e0234973. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234973. eCollection 2020.


Background: On-line tutorials are being increasingly used in medical education, including in teaching housestaff skills regarding end of life care. Recently an on-line tutorial incorporating interactive clinical vignettes and communication skills was used to prepare housestaff at Johns Hopkins Hospital to use the Maryland Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) form, which documents patient preferences regarding end of life care. 40% of housestaff who viewed the module felt less than comfortable discussing choices on the MOLST with patients. We sought to understand factors beyond knowledge that contributed to housestaff discomfort in MOLST discussions despite successfully completing an on-line tutorial.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 18 housestaff who completed the on-line MOLST training module. Housestaff participants demonstrated good knowledge of legal and regulatory issues related to the MOLST compared to their peers, but reported feeling less than comfortable discussing the MOLST with patients. Transcripts of interviews were coded using thematic analysis to describe barriers to using the MOLST and suggestions for improving housestaff education about end of life care discussions.

Results: Qualitative analysis showed three major factors contributing to lack of housestaff comfort completing the MOLST form: [1] physician barriers to completion of the MOLST, [2] perceived patient barriers to completion of the MOLST, and [3] design characteristics of the MOLST form. Housestaff recommended a number of adaptations for improvement, including in-person training to improve their skills conducting conversations regarding end of life preferences with patients.

Conclusions: Some housestaff who scored highly on knowledge tests after completing a formal on-line curriculum on the MOLST form reported barriers to using a mandated form despite receiving training. On-line modules may be insufficient for teaching communication skills to housestaff. Additional training opportunities including in-person training mechanisms should be incorporated into housestaff communication skills training related to end of life care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Advance Directives / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Advance Directives / psychology*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / psychology*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maryland
  • Physician-Patient Relations
  • Physicians / psychology*
  • Resuscitation Orders / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Resuscitation Orders / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires