Under physiological conditions skeletal muscle regeneration depends on the satellite cells. After injury these cells become activated, proliferate, and differentiate into myofibers reconstructing damaged tissue. Under pathological conditions satellite cells are not sufficient to support regeneration. For this reason, other cells are sought to be used in cell therapies, and different factors are tested as a tool to improve the regenerative potential of such cells. Many studies are conducted using animal cells, omitting the necessity to learn about human cells and compare them to animal ones. Here, we analyze and compare the impact of IL-4 and SDF-1, factors chosen by us on the basis of their ability to support myogenic differentiation and cell migration, at mouse and human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). Importantly, we documented that mouse and human ADSCs differ in certain reactions to IL-4 and SDF-1. In general, the selected factors impacted transcriptome of ADSCs and improved migration and fusion ability of cells in vitro. In vivo, after transplantation into injured muscles, mouse ADSCs more eagerly participated in new myofiber formation than the human ones. However, regardless of the origin, ADSCs alleviated immune response and supported muscle reconstruction, and cytokine treatment enhanced these effects. Thus, we documented that the presence of ADSCs improves skeletal muscle regeneration and this influence could be increased by cell pretreatment with IL-4 and SDF-1.
Keywords: ADSC; IL-4; SDF-1; differentiation; human; mouse; myogenesis; regeneration; skeletal muscle.