COVID-19 in patients with lung cancer

Ann Oncol. 2020 Oct;31(10):1386-1396. doi: 10.1016/j.annonc.2020.06.007. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Abstract

Background: Patients with lung cancers may have disproportionately severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Understanding the patient-specific and cancer-specific features that impact the severity of COVID-19 may inform optimal cancer care during this pandemic.

Patients and methods: We examined consecutive patients with lung cancer and confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (n = 102) at a single center from 12 March 2020 to 6 May 2020. Thresholds of severity were defined a priori as hospitalization, intensive care unit/intubation/do not intubate ([ICU/intubation/DNI] a composite metric of severe disease), or death. Recovery was defined as >14 days from COVID-19 test and >3 days since symptom resolution. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles were inferred from MSK-IMPACT (n = 46) and compared with controls with lung cancer and no known non-COVID-19 (n = 5166).

Results: COVID-19 was severe in patients with lung cancer (62% hospitalized, 25% died). Although severe, COVID-19 accounted for a minority of overall lung cancer deaths during the pandemic (11% overall). Determinants of COVID-19 severity were largely patient-specific features, including smoking status and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [odds ratio for severe COVID-19 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.07-9.44 comparing the median (23.5 pack-years) to never-smoker and 3.87, 95% confidence interval 1.35-9.68, respectively]. Cancer-specific features, including prior thoracic surgery/radiation and recent systemic therapies did not impact severity. Human leukocyte antigen supertypes were generally similar in mild or severe cases of COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19 controls. Most patients recovered from COVID-19, including 25% patients initially requiring intubation. Among hospitalized patients, hydroxychloroquine did not improve COVID-19 outcomes.

Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with high burden of severity in patients with lung cancer. Patient-specific features, rather than cancer-specific features or treatments, are the greatest determinants of severity.

Keywords: COVID-19; chemotherapy; immunotherapy/checkpoint blockade; lung cancer; small molecule agents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • B7-H1 Antigen / immunology
  • B7-H1 Antigen / therapeutic use
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / immunology
  • Coronavirus Infections / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitalization / trends
  • Humans
  • Hydroxychloroquine / therapeutic use
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / immunology
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / immunology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / therapy*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2

Substances

  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • CD274 protein, human
  • Hydroxychloroquine

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19 drug treatment