Introduction and objectives: There is insufficient data regarding sex-related prognostic differences in patients with a non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). We performed a sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular outcomes after NSTEACS using a large contemporary cohort of patients from two tertiary hospitals.
Methods: This work is a retrospective analysis from a prospective registry, that included 5,686 consecutive NSTEACS patients from two Spanish University hospitals between the years 2005 and 2017. We performed a propensity score matching to obtain a well-balanced subset of individuals with the same clinical characteristics, resulting in 3,120 patients. Cox regression models performed survival analyses once the proportional risk test was verified.
Results: Among the study participants, 1,572 patients (27.6%) were women. The mean follow-up was 60.0 months (standard deviation of 32 months). Women had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with men (OR (Odds ratio) 1.27, CI (confidence interval) 95% 1.08-1.49), heart failure (HF) hospitalization (OR 1.39, CI 95% 1.18-1.63) and risk of all-cause mortality (OR 1.10, CI 95% 1.08-1.49). After a propensity score matching, female gender was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of total mortality (OR 0.77, CI 95% 0.65-0.90) with a similar risk of cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.86, CI 0.71-1.03) and HF hospitalization (OR 0.92, CI 95% 0.68-1.23). After baseline adjustment, the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality was lower in women, whereas the risk of HF remained similar among sexes.
Conclusions: In a contemporary cohort of patients with NSTEACS, women are at similar risk of developing early and late HF admissions, and have better survival compared with men, with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The implementation of NSTEACS guideline recommendations in women, including early revascularization, seems to be accompanied by improved early and long-term prognosis.
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