The Presence of Poultry Influenza Strains in Two Live Bird Markets Near the East-West Boundary of Vietnam

Biomed Res Int. 2020 Jun 4;2020:1487651. doi: 10.1155/2020/1487651. eCollection 2020.


The spread of avian influenza virus among Asian countries is becoming a concern after influenza epidemics in recent years. This study is aimed at identifying the subtypes of avian influenza viruses collected from healthy chickens and ducks at two live bird markets in a border province of Vietnam and the Lao People Democratic Republic. Cloacal and tracheal swab samples from 100 chickens and 101 ducks were collected in May 2017. All samples were screened to detect avian influenza virus by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Samples that are avian influenza virus-positive were isolated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the subtypes were identified by RT-PCR with the specific primers. The samples positive for influenza virus H5 were sequenced to identify HA and NA genes. The prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) among chicken and duck samples was 27.5% (55/200) and 24.8% (50/202), respectively. AIV subtypes identified among 17 samples positive with the hemagglutination test include H3N6, H6N6, and H9N2. Of these 17 samples, 7 duck samples were found to be H6N6, 4 duck samples were infected with both subtypes of H3N6 and H6N6, and two chicken samples were recorded as H9N2. A positive chicken sample with A/H5 contains 99% similarity nucleotide with H5N6 reference strain. Results suggested that while the presence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus is predominant, potential risks of the appearance of high pathogen avian influenza virus in the east-west boundary in Vietnam should be concerned and studied further. Furthermore, prevention activities are needed to reduce such biosecurity threats in Vietnam and other Asian countries.