Depression, anxiety, and stress and socio-demographic correlates among general Indian public during COVID-19

Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020 Dec;66(8):756-762. doi: 10.1177/0020764020934508. Epub 2020 Jun 20.


Background: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians.

Aim: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire.

Results: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms.

Conclusion: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.

Keywords: COVID-19; Depression; India; anxiety; lockdown; stress.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anxiety / diagnosis
  • Anxiety / epidemiology*
  • Betacoronavirus
  • Binge Drinking / epidemiology
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / psychology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mental Health*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / psychology*
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Quarantine / psychology
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Social Isolation / psychology
  • Stress, Psychological / diagnosis
  • Stress, Psychological / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult