3D Printing in Modern Cardiology

Curr Pharm Des. 2021;27(16):1918-1930. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666200622132440.


Background: 3D printing represents an emerging technology in the field of cardiovascular medicine. 3D printing can help to perform a better analysis of complex anatomies to optimize intervention planning.

Methods: A systematic review was performed to illustrate the 3D printing technology and to describe the workflow to obtain 3D printed models from patient-specific images. Examples from our laboratory of the benefit of 3D printing in planning interventions were also reported.

Results: 3D printing technique is reliable when applied to high-quality 3D image data (CTA, CMR, 3D echography), but it still needs the involvement of expert operators for image segmentation and mesh refinement. 3D printed models could be useful in interventional planning, although prospective studies with comprehensive and clinically meaningful endpoints are required to demonstrate the clinical utility.

Conclusion: 3D printing can be used to improve anatomy understanding and surgical planning.

Keywords: 3D printing; cardiology; congenital heart disease; structural heart disease; virtual model..

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiology*
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  • Prospective Studies