Pharmacological development of the potential adjuvant therapeutic agents against coronavirus disease 2019

J Chin Med Assoc. 2020 Sep;83(9):817-821. doi: 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000375.


As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, also called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) outbreak accelerates, vigorous and diverse efforts were made in developing treatment strategies. In addition to direct acting agents, increasing evidence showed some potential adjuvant therapies with promising efficacy against COVID-19. These therapies include immunomodulators (i.e. intravenous immunoglobulin, thymosin α-1, interleukin [IL]-6, tocilizumab, cyclosporine, thalidomide, fingolimod), Chinese medicines (i.e. glycyrrhizin, baicalin, Xuebijing), anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (bevacizumab), estrogen modulating drugs, statins, and nutritional supplements (i.e. vitamins A, B, C, D, E and zinc). This article reviewed the pharmacological development of potential adjuvants for COVID-19 treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus*
  • COVID-19
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • Medicine, Chinese Traditional
  • Nutritional Support
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Immunologic Factors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A